Ukucaciswa Kobuchwepheshe beMarmaray

izici zobuchwepheshe bomshado
izici zobuchwepheshe bomshado
• Kukhona ubude be-13.500 m, obuqukethe i-27000 m, ngalinye lakhiwa imigqa ephindwe kabili.
• Ukuhamba kwe-Throat kwenziwa ngomhubhe ocwilisiwe kanye nomugqa we-1 wokucwilisa umhubhe wokucwilisa yi-1386.999 m, umugqa we-Line 2 Imersion ubude yi-1385.673 m.
• Ukuqhubeka komhubhe ocwilisiwe e-Asia naseYurophu kunikezwa ngemigudu yokumba. Ubude bomugqa we-1 wokumba umgodi yi-10837 m, kanti umugqa we-2 wokumba umhubhe wokumba ngu-10816 m.
• Umgwaqo umgwaqo ongahambeki kahle ngaphakathi komhubhe futhi umgwaqo owubumbumbulu ongaphandle komhubhe.
• Ojantshi abasetshenzisiwe bekuyi-UIC 60 kanye nojantshi abenziwe nzima ngamakhowe.
• Izinto zokuxhuma ziwuhlobo lwe-HM, oluwuhlobo lokuqina.
• Ojantshi be-18 m ubude benziwa ojantshi abade abaphephe.
• Kwakusetshenziswa amabhlogo we-LVT emhubheni.
• Ukulungiswa komgwaqo eMarmaray kwenziwa ngemishini yohlelo yakamuva ngokwenza kwethu ngaphandle kokuphazamiseka ngokuya nge-TCDD Roadondlo Yesondlo kanye nezinqubo zokulungiswa kwezinkampani ezikhiqiza ezilungiselelwe ngokuya ngezindlela ze-EN ne-UIC.
• Ukuhlolwa okubonakalayo komugqa kwenziwa njalo nsuku zonke, futhi ukuhlolwa kwejubane kwejubane kwenziwa njalo ngenyanga ngemishini ezwela kakhulu.
• Ukulawulwa nokugcinwa kwemigudu kwenziwa ngokuhambisana namazinga afanayo.
• Izinsizakalo zokulungiswa kwemisebenzi yesondlo zenziwa nge-1 Manager, i-1 Maintenance and Repair Supervisor, i-4 Injiniya, umhloli womhloli we-3 kanye nabasebenzi be-12 eMnyangweni Wezokulungiswa Kwemigwaqo nokulungiswa kwesikhungo saseMarmaray.

izibalo

LONKE LENGTH 76,3 km
Ubude Besahluko Metro 63 km
- Inani Iziteshi on Surface Izingxenye ze-37
Ubude Bonke besigaba Sesitimela Sokuwela Izitaladi 13,6km
- Ubude Bokumba Umhubhe 9,8 km
- Ubude Bomhubhe We-Tube 1,4km
- Vula - Vala ubude Umhubhe 2,4 km
- Inombolo Yeziteshi Zangaphansi Komhlaba Izingcezu ze-3
Ubude besiteshi I-225m (ubuncane)
Inani labagibeli kuDirection eyodwa Umgibeli we-75.000 umgibeli / ihora / indlela eyodwa
Isithambeka esikhulu 18
I-Max Speed I-100 km / h
Ijubane Lokuhweba I-45 km / h
Inani Lamasheduli Oqeqesho Lwezitimela 2-10 imizuzu
Inani lezimoto I-440 (unyaka we-2015)

UKUTHOLA ITUNNEL

Umhubhe Okufakwe ngaphakathi uqukethe izinto eziningana ezikhiqizwe edokini elomile noma endaweni yomkhumbi. Lezi zinto bese zidonswa esakhiweni, zifakwe esiteshini futhi zixhunywe ukuze zakhe isimo sokugcina somhubhe.

Kulesi sibalo esingezansi, isakhi sithwalwa yi-catamaran docking barge endaweni efakwe ngaphansi komhlaba. (ITama River Tunnel eJapan)

izici zobuchwepheshe bomshado
izici zobuchwepheshe bomshado

Isithombe esingenhla sibonisa izivikelo zangaphandle zethusi ezikhiqizwa emkhunjini wemikhumbi. Lezi zimbiza zidonsa njengomkhumbi futhi zithuthela esakhiweni lapho ukhonkolo uzogcwala khona futhi ugcwaliswe (evezwe ngenhla) [I-Osaka Port yaseJapane (emgwaqeni wesitimela nomgwaqo) (iKobe Port Minatojima Tunnel eJapane).

izici zobuchwepheshe bomshado
izici zobuchwepheshe bomshado

ngenhla; Umhubhe we-Kawasaki Harbour eJapane. kwesokudla; Umhubhe wase-South Osaka Harbour eJapane. Zombili iziphetho zezinto zivaliwe okwesikhashana ngamaqoqo okuhlukanisa; Ngakho-ke, lapho kukhishwa amanzi futhi ichibi elisetshenziselwa ukwakha izakhi ligcwala ngamanzi, lezi zakhi zizovunyelwa ukuba zigeleke emanzini. (Izithombe ezithathwe encwadini enyatheliswa yi-Association of Japanese Screening and Reclamation Engineers.)

Ubude bomhubhe ocwilisiwe olwandle lweBosporus cishe amakhilomitha angama-1.4, kufaka phakathi ukuxhumana phakathi komhubhe ocwilisiwe kanye nemhubhe yokumba. Umhubhe uyisixhumanisi esibalulekile kuloliwe wesitimela onemizila emibili onqamula ngaphansi kweBosphorus; lo msele uphakathi kwesifunda sase-Eminönü ohlangothini lwaseYurophu lwe-Istanbul nesifunda sase-Üsküdar ngasohlangothini lwase-Asia. Zombili izintambo zesitimela zinwebeka ngaphakathi kwezinto ezifanayo zomhubhu bese zihlukaniswa omunye nomunye ngodonga oluphakathi nendawo.

Phakathi nekhulu lama-20, kuye kwakhiwa imigudu engaphezu kwekhulu emigwaqweni yomgwaqo noma wesitimela emhlabeni jikelele. Imigudu ehambelanayo yakhiwa njengezakhiwo ezizungezile bese ibhapathizwa esiteshini esidala ngaphambili esasihlanganiswe nesendlalelo sekhava. Lezi imigudu kumele ibe nesisindo esanele sokuzivikela ekubhukuda futhi ngemuva kokubekwa.

Imigudu ehambelanayo yakhiwe kusukela ochungechungeni lwezici zemikhawulo ezakhiwe zithandwa kakhulu ngobude obukhululekile; Lezi zici ngokuvamile ziyi-100 m ubude, futhi ekupheleni komhubhe we-tube lezi zakhi zixhunywe futhi zihlanganiswe ngaphansi kwamanzi ukuze zenze isimo sokugcina somhubhe. Isici ngasinye sinezinhlamvu ezibeka isikhathi okwesikhashana emaphethelweni okuphela; lezi zinethi zivumela izakhi ukuba zintantane lapho ngaphakathi kungomile. Inqubo yokuqamba imishini igcwaliswe emgodini owomile, noma izakhi zihanjiswe olwandle njengomkhumbi bese zikhiqizwa ezinxenyeni ezihambayo eduze kwesayithi lomhlangano wokugcina.

Izinto ezifakiwe zethhubhu ezikhiqizwe futhi ziqediwe edokini elomile noma esikhungweni semikhumbi zidonswa lapho; egxilile esiteshini futhi ixhunyiwe ukwakha isimo sokugcina somhubhe. Kwesobunxele: Ingxenye idonswa endaweni lapho ukusebenza komhlangano wokugcina kuzokwenzelwa khona ukucwiliswa ethekwini elinabantu abaningi.

Izinto zomhubhe zingadonswa ngempumelelo kumabanga amakhulu. Ngemuva kokuthi ukwenziwa kwemishini kwenziwe eTuzla, lezi zinto zafakwa emiseleni emigodini eyakhiwe ngokukhethekile, engavumela ukwehliswa kwezinto eziteshini ezilungiselelwe ezansi olwandle. Lezi zinto zabe sezihlanganiswa, zinikeze isisindo esidingekayo ukwehlisa nokucwilisa.

izici zobuchwepheshe bomshado
izici zobuchwepheshe bomshado

Ukufaka into ethile kungumsebenzi odla isikhathi futhi obucayi. Esithombeni esingenhla, isici sikhonjiswa ukuba sicwiliselwa phansi. Le nto ilawulwa ngokuqondile ngama-anching kanye nezinhlelo zekhebula kanye nemijikelezo emigodini ebunjiwe ilawula ukuma okuqondile kuze kube yilapho isakhi sehliswa futhi sesihleli ngokuphelele esisekelweni. Esithombeni esingezansi, isikhundla saleso sakhi singabhekwa yi-GPS ngesikhathi sokucwiliswa. (Izithombe ezithathwe encwadini enyatheliswe yiJapan Association of Screening and Breeding Enjiniya.)

izici zobuchwepheshe bomshado
izici zobuchwepheshe bomshado

Izinto ezigxilisiwe zilethwa ndawonye-ukuphela-kwezinto kanye nezinto zangaphambilini; ngemuva kwalokhu, amanzi endaweni yokuxhuma phakathi kwezinto ezixhunyiwe ayekhishwa. Njengomphumela wenqubo yokuphuma kwamanzi, umfutho wamanzi ngakolunye uhlangothi lwento ucindezela i-gasket yerabha ukuze i-gasket ingangeni manzi. Izinto zokuxhasa zesikhashana zabanjwa lapho isisekelo esingaphansi kwezinto saphothulwa. Isiteshi sabe sesigcwaliswa futhi kwafakwa ungqimba oludingekayo lokuvikela. Ngemuva kokufaka i-tube tun tun end element, izindawo ezihlanganayo zomhubhe wokumba kanye nomhubhe weshubhu zagcwaliswa ngezinto zokugcwalisa ezinikeza ukungavunyelwa kwamanzi. Ama-Tunneling Machines (TBMs) asetshenziselwa ukumba ungene emhubheni kuze kube yilapho imigudu isifinyelelwa.

izici zobuchwepheshe bomshado
izici zobuchwepheshe bomshado

Ingaphezulu lomhubhe limbozwe nge-backfill ukuqinisekisa ukuqina nokuvikelwa. Yonke le mifanekiso emithathu ikhombisa ukubuyiselwa emuva kusuka ebhajini elihlanzekile le-self-elizihambele usebenzisa indlela ye-tremi. (Izithombe ezithathwe encwadini enyatheliswe yiJapan Association of Screening and Breeding Enjiniya)

izici zobuchwepheshe bomshado
izici zobuchwepheshe bomshado

Emhubheni ofakwe ngaphansi komshini, kunegumbi elilodwa elinamagumbi amabili, ngalinye libe lokuhamba ngesitimela ngendlela eyodwa. Izakhi zigxunyekwe ngokuphelele emanzini olwandle ukuze kuthi lapho umsebenzi wokwakha usebenzele iphrofayili yasolwandle iyafana nephrofayili yasolwandle ngaphambi kokuqala kokusebenza.

izici zobuchwepheshe bomshado
izici zobuchwepheshe bomshado

Enye yezinzuzo zendlela yokuntywila yomhubhe ocwilisiwe ukuthi isigaba-somhubhe somhubhe singalungiswa kahle ngezidingo ezithile zomhubhe ngamunye. Ngale ndlela, ungabona izingxenye ezihlukile zesiphambano ezisetshenziswa emhlabeni wonke esithombeni esingenhla. Imigudu yokuntywiliselwa yayakhiwe ngendlela yezakhi zekhonkolo eziqinisiwe, ngendlela evamile, enezimvilophini zensimbi ezingenasici futhi ezisebenza ngokubambisana nezinto zangaphakathi kokhonkolo eziqinisiwe. Ngokuphambene nalokho, kusetshenziswe amasu wokuqamba eJapan kusukela eminyakeni engamashumi ayisishiyagalolunye, kusetshenziswa amakhontrakthi angaqinanga kepha aboshiwe enziwe nge-sandwich phakathi kwemvilophini yensimbi yangaphakathi neyangaphandle; lawa ma concretes ahlanganiswe ngokwakhiwa ngokuphelele. Le ndlela ingasungulwa ngokuqamba uketshezi lwekhwalithi enhle kakhulu nekhonkrithi ehlanganisiwe. Le ndlela ingasusa izidingo ezihlobene nokucutshungulwa nokukhiqizwa kwemigoqo yensimbi nezikhunta, futhi ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, ngokunikeza ukuvikela okwanele kwe-cathodic ezimvilophini zensimbi, izinkinga zokushayisana zingaqedwa.

UKUGUQUKA KANYE NAMANYE AMADODA WESITOLO

Imigudu ngaphansi kwe-Istanbul inengxube yezindlela ezahlukahlukene.

izici zobuchwepheshe bomshado
izici zobuchwepheshe bomshado
Ingxenye ebomvu yomzila iqukethe umhubhe ongashintshiwe, kuyilapho ingxenye emhlophe yakhiwa kakhulu njengomhubhe wokumba usebenzisa imishini yokuhambisa imihubhe (i-TBM), kanti izingxenye eziphuzi zenziwa kusetshenziswa indlela evulelekile (C&C) ne-New Austrian Tunneling Way (NATM) noma ezinye izindlela zendabuko. . Lesi sibalo sibonisa ama-Tunnel Boring Machines (TBM) anezinombolo ze-1,2,3,4 nezingu-5
Imisele yokumba ibivulwe edwaleni kusetshenziswa imishini yokuthunga (i-TBMs) ixhunywe emhubheni ocwilisiwe. Kukhona umhubhe ohlangothini ngalunye nomugqa wesitimela kulolo ngalunye lwale mikhondo. Kwafakwa imihubhe nebanga elanele phakathi komunye nomunye ukuze ivikeleke ukuthintana kakhulu. Ukuze unikeze ithuba lokubalekela emhubheni ofanayo esimweni esiphuthumayo, imigudu yokuxhumana emifushane yakhiwe ngezikhathi ezithile.
Imigudu engaphansi komuzi ixhunyiwe komunye nomunye njalo ngamamitha e-200; ngakho-ke, kuhlinzekwe ukuthi abasebenzi bensiza bangadlula kalula besuka kwesinye isiteshi baye kwesinye. Ngaphezu kwalokho, uma kwenzeka ingozi kunoma iyiphi imigudu yokumba, lokhu kuxhumana kuzonikeza izindlela zokutakula eziphephile futhi kunikeze ukufinyelela kwabasebenzi bokutakula.
Emhubheni yokubopha (TBM), ukuthuthukiswa okuvamile kuye kwabonakala ngonyaka wokugcina we-20-30. Imifanekiso ibonisa izibonelo zomshini onjalo wanamuhla. Ububanzi besihlangu singadlula amamitha angu-15 namasu wamanje.
Ukusebenza kwemishini yesimanje yemhubhe eyisicefe kungaba nzima kakhulu. Lesi sithombe sisebenzisa umshini onezici ezintathu, ezisetshenziswa eJapan, ukuvula umhubhe obunjwe obumbile. Le ndlela ingasetshenziswa lapho amapulatifomu esiteshini adinga ukwakhiwa, kepha angadingeki.
Lapho isigaba somhubhe sishintshile, kusetshenziswe izinqubo ezikhethekile eziningi, kanye nezinye izindlela (New Austrian Tunneling Way (NATM), ukuqhuma kokuqhumisa kanye nomshini wokuvula igalari). Kusetshenziswe izinqubo ezifanayo ngesikhathi kokumbiwa kwesiteshi iSirkeci, okwakuhlelwe kuso igalari enkulu futhi ejulile evulwe ngaphansi komhlaba. Kwakhiwa iziteshi ezimbili ezihlukile ngaphansi komhlaba kusetshenziswa amasu avulekile; Lezi ziteshi zitholakala eYenikapı nase-Üsküdar. Lapho kusetshenziswa khona imigudu evulekile, le mihubhe yakhiwa njengesigaba esisodwa sebhokisi besebenzisa udonga oluhlukanisa phakathi nendawo.
Kuzo zonke iziteshi kanye neziteshi, kufakwa amanzi okwehlukaniswa kanye nomoya omncane ukuvikela ukuvuza. Ezitimeleni zikaloliwe zasemadolobheni amancane, kuzosetshenziswa izimiso zokuklama ezifana nalezo ezisetshenziselwa iziteshi zikamasipala ezingaphansi komhlaba. Izithombe ezilandelayo zibonisa umhubhe owakhiwe ngendlela ye-NATM.
Lapho kudingeka khona imigqa yokulala exhumeke noma imigqa yokuhlangana eseceleni, kusetshenziswa izindlela ezihlukile zokuhlanganisa ngokuhlanganisa. Kulesi shubhu, indlela ye-TBM kanye neNATM inqubo isetshenziswa ndawonye.

UKUTHOLAKALA KANYE NOKUXHUMANYA

Kwakusetshenziswa izikejana zokumba izinto ezazinamatshe okufaka izinto ezithile zokumbiwa kwamanzi angaphansi komhlaba kanye nokwenza umsebenzi wokumba kabusha wesiteshi somhubhe.
Imersed Tube Tunnel yabekwa olwandle lweBosphorus. Ngakho-ke, kwavulwa isiteshi phansi olwandle olukhulu ngokwanele ukuthwala izinto zokwakha; Ngaphezu kwalokho, lesi siteshi sakhiwa ngendlela yokuthi ungqimba olungaphezulu nolokuvikela lungafakwa emhubheni.
Ukumbiwa okungaphansi kwamanzi kanye nemisebenzi yokudonsa yaleli canal yenziwa yazehlela phansi kusetshenziswa izinto ezijulile zokumba ngaphansi komhlaba kanye nemishini yokulungisa ukopha. Inani eliphelele lomhlabathi othambile, isihlabathi, amatshe amatshe kanye nedwala ekhishwe selidlule inani eliphelele le-1,000,000 m3.
Iphuzu lokujula kwayo yonke indlela itholakala kwiBosphorus futhi inobunzulu bamamitha ayi-44. I-Emersion Tube Ungqimba oluvikelayo lwamamitha ayi-2 okungenani lubekwe emhubheni futhi isigaba sesiphambano samashubhu sicishe sibe ngamamitha we-9. Ngakho-ke, ukujula kokusebenza kwe-dredger kwakungamamitha ayi-58.
Kwakunenombolo elilinganiselwe yezinhlobo ezahlukene zemishini ezokwenza lokhu kufezeke. IDredging Dredger neTug Bucket Dredger zazisetshenziselwa ukuhlolwa imisebenzi.
I-Grab Bucket Dredger imoto enzima kakhulu efakwe emgqonyeni. Njengoba igama lale moto liphakamisa, linamabhakede amabili noma ngaphezulu. Lezi zibhebhe ziyizibhakede ezivulekile lapho idivayisi ishiywe kusuka ebhajini futhi imiswe okwesikhawulo futhi imiswe okwesikhashana. Ngenxa yokuthi amabhakede asindayo kakhulu, athela phansi phansi. Lapho ibhakede liphakanyiselwa phezulu phansi kolwandle, livale ngokuzenzekelayo futhi amathuluzi athunyelwa phezulu futhi alayishwe emabhajini ngokusebenzisa amabhakede.
Ama-dredgers anamandla kunabo bonke abakwazi ukumba cishe i-25 m3 ngomjikelezo owodwa wokusebenza. Ukusetshenziswa kwamanzi amabhakede kuyasiza kakhulu ezintweni ezilukhuni ezisezingeni eliphansi futhi angeke kusetshenziswe kumathuluzi anzima njenge-sandstone nedwala. Ukubamba ama-dragred dredges kungenye yezinhlobo zokudala ezindala kakhulu; Kodwa-ke, zisetshenziselwa kabanzi emhlabeni wonke ukuze kusetshenziswe amanzi nokudonswa kwamanzi ngaphansi komhlaba.
Uma inhlabathi engcolisiwe izoskenwa, amanye amarhasi akhethekile enjoloba angafakwa emabhakede. Lezi zimpawu zivimbela ukukhishwa kwemali esele nezinsalela ezinhle kwikholamu yamanzi ngesikhathi sokudonsa kwebhakede phezulu kusuka olwandle noma kuqinisekise ukuthi inani lezinhlayiya ezikhishwe lingagcinwa ngamazinga alinganiselwe kakhulu.
Inzuzo yebhakede ukuthi ithembeke kakhulu futhi iyakwazi ukumba nokumba phansi ekujuleni okuphezulu. Okubi wukuthi izinga lokumba lincipha kakhulu njengoba ukujula kukhuphuka, nokuthi okukhona manje kwiBosphorus kuzothinta ukunemba nokusebenza okuphelele. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukumbiwa nokuhlola akukwenziwa kumathuluzi alukhuni anama-ladles.
I-Dredger Bucket Dredger ngumkhumbi okhethekile ohlanganiswe nohlobo lokuntywila lokufaka kanye nokusika ngepayipi yokudonsa. Ngenkathi umkhumbi uzulazula ngale ndlela, umhlabathi oxutshwe namanzi uyaphonswa usuka phansi olwandle ungene emkhunjini. Kuyadingeka ukuthi izimbotshana zizinze emkhunjini. Ukuze ugcwalise umkhumbi ngomthamo omkhulu, kufanele uqiniseke ukuthi inani elikhulu lamanzi asalayo ayaphuma emkhunjini ngenkathi umkhumbi uhamba. Lapho umkhumbi ugcwele, iya endaweni yokulahla imfucumfucu bese ichitha imfucuza; umkhumbi uyobe usulungele umjikelezo olandelayo womsebenzi.
I-Tow Bucket Dredgers enamandla kunazo zonke ingabamba cishe amathani amancane angu-40,000 (cishe i-17,000 m3) yamathuluzi ngomjikelezo owodwa wokusebenza futhi ingakwazi ukumba nokuskena ekujuleni kwamamitha angu-70. I-Dredger Bucket Dredgers ingakwazi ukuvulela nokuskena ezintweni eziluhlaza ezisezingeni eliphansi.
Izinzuzo zeDredger Bucket Dredger; umthamo ophezulu kanye nesistimu yeselula ayithembeli kuma-anchorage systems. Izinkinga; kanye nokuntuleka kokuchithwa nokucubungula kanye nokudwengula ngalezi zitsha ezindaweni eziseduze nolwandle.
Ekuxhumeni kokuhlangana komhubhe ocwilisiwe, amanye amadwala ayembiwa futhi afakwa ngaphansi kogu. Izindlela ezimbili ezihlukene zilandelwe kule nqubo. Enye yalezi zindlela ukusebenzisa indlela ejwayelekile yokushayela phansi nokuqhuma kwamanzi ngaphansi kwamanzi; enye indlela ukusetshenziswa kwensiza ekhethekile yokuvumelanisa, evumela ukuthi idwala libhujiswe ngaphandle kokuqhuma. Lezi zindlela zombili zihamba kancane futhi ziyabiza.

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