Metro emhlabeni futhi Turkey

Earth Turkey Metro
Earth Turkey Metro

Metro emhlabeni futhi Turkey: Metro emhlabeni futhi Turkey: ukwanda kwabantu ngokuvamile asebazinza maphakathi edolobheni futhi idolobha elikhulu okungukuthi ngokushesha izitobhi nokuxhuma komhlaba wesitimela kagesi zokuhamba eziya emizaneni. Inendlela yokuphuma edolobheni, ihamba umugqa ophindwe kabili futhi inikeze ithuba lokusebenzisa inani elikhulu lezinqola esitimeleni esingaphansi komhlaba futhi ifinyelele isivinini esikhulu. Indlela engaphansi komhlaba ingalawulwa ngabasebenzi abambalwa kakhulu.

Imetro yokuqala emhlabeni yasungulwa eLondon. Kuvulwe i1863, indlela engaphansi komhlaba manje ithwala abagibeli abalinganiselwa ezigidini eziyisishiyagalombili ngosuku. IParis Metro, evulwe nge-1900, manje idlulisa abagibeli abangaphezu kwezigidi ezinhlanu ngosuku. Amanye amadolobha anezitimela ezingaphansi komhlaba eYurophu; I-Budapest (1896), iBerlin (1882), iHamburg (1912), iLeningrad (1915), iMoscow (1935), Stockholm (1950), Vienna (1898), iMadrid (1919), iBarcelona (1923), iRoma (1955), iRom (1959), iRom (1962), iRom (XNUMX), iRom (XNUMX), iRoma ILisbon (XNUMX), iMilan (XNUMX).

Isitimela esingaphansi kweNew York, esasivulwe yimigwaqo yomoya ngaphesheya komgwaqo e1868, siguqulwe saba yimigqa engaphansi komhlaba e-1904. Amanye amadolobha anezitimela ezingaphansi komhlaba eMelika yiChicago (1892), iPhiladelphia (1907), iBoston (1901), iToronto (1921).

ITokyo 1927 ne-Osaka 1933 eJapan, neBuenos Aires 1911 e-Argentina. Imigqa yomoya yemigwaqo engaphansi iyoba okungenani amamitha ayi-6 ngaphezu komhlaba. Uphahla luyinsimbi noma ukhonkolo oqinisiwe. Iphikisana nomhlabathi ngokusekelwa okuqinile. Kusetshenziswa izinhlelo ezimbili emigqeni engaphansi komhlaba. Kowokuqala, imipheme lapho imigqa izodlula khona ingaphansi kwezinga lomgwaqo ekujuleni kwamamitha we-6-8 kanti enye ingezansi kwamamitha we-35-40. Imigwaqo engezansi eyenziwe ngendlela yokuqala ishibhile. Ngoba ukumbiwa kwemibukiso kuqala ngokudonsa kusuka ezingeni lomgwaqo kuya ekujuleni, futhi kwakhiwa udonga lukakhonkolo kuzo zombili izinhlangothi zomsele owembiwe. Ngakho-ke, igalari, ethatha isimo se-prisular prism, ivaliwe futhi umgwaqo wenziwe kabusha. Okuphambili emuva kwale ndlela ukuthi ilandela uhlelo lomgwaqo ngakho-ke inobude obude, obuthathelwa emuva futhi obukhombayo. Yize ukumbiwa kwenziwa ekujuleni okuphakathi okufana namamitha we-6-8, izindonga zikhombisa ukwakheka kwe-elliptical kumagalari anemigqa ephindwe kabili. Kumanethiwekhi ajulile, imigqa ayilandeli uhlelo lomgwaqo, imvamisa inemigqa efanele. Ngakho-ke, indlela ephakathi kwamaphuzu amabili ifushane kakhulu. Kulamanethiwekhi, imipheme eqoshiwe nxazonke. Kudlula umugqa owodwa. Lezi zemibukiso zinobubanzi bendandatho be-3,5-4,5 m futhi zihlanganiswe namasongo wensimbi. Nokho, muva nje, lezi zindandatho zensimbi zithathelwe indawo uhlelo lwangaphansi lukakhonkolo olungagxunyekwa ndawonye.

Ukuvulwa kwesitimela kujwayelekile cishe kukho konke (1435 mm). Ayikho imigqa ephindwe kabili kwimibukiso ejulile. Kungaba nemipheme emibili evulwe eceleni, yilowo nalowo osebenzisa izitimela endaweni eyodwa. Ukuphambuka nokujika kukuphela kwamaphoyinti wesiteshi. Imigqa ayize yeqe. Iziteshi zeziteshi zakhiwa ngokwandisa amagalari kumanethiwekhi angaphansi komhlaba nangokwakha uphahla lweplatifomu kumanethiwekhi omoya. Iziteshi zinama-100-160 amamitha amade amapulatifomu. Ama-Escalators ajwayele ukusetshenziswa ukuthola abagibeli emigwaqweni. Izitimela ziyefana nezitimela zikagesi. Inkomba ephindwe kabili. Inani nokwakheka kwezinqola kuyehluka ngenethiwekhi. Isitimela seMetro singasebenza i-90-100 km ngehora, kepha imvamisa asidluli i-60 km. Isitimela esijwayelekile se-20 sihamba siqonde endaweni eyodwa ngehora. Kodwa-ke, njengasezitimeleni ezingaphansi kweLondon, i-40 ngehora ingafinyelelwa intambo.

Metro Okuhamba phambili Emhlabeni

  1. New York - America: Bambalwa kakhulu abantu abanezimoto eNew York. Futhi, ukusebenzisa isikhathi kuncane kakhulu ngoba ukupaka kufana nokuthola igolide endleleni. Ivulwe ku-1904 kuphela nesiteshi se-28, istimela esingaphansi komhlaba manje sineziteshi ze-462 futhi zithwala abantu abayizigidi ezingama-4.9 ngosuku. Futhi lo mzila ongaphansi komhlaba uvuliwe i-365 / 7 iwashi ku-24 yonyaka.
  2. London - England: ILondon Underground iyindlela ehamba phambili futhi endala kunayo yonke emhlabeni. I-metro, eyakhelwe ku-1863, manje inenqwaba yeziteshi ze-405 emugqeni we-268 km. Abantu abayizigidi ze-976 ngosuku basebenzisa lo mzila ongaphansi komhlaba uya endaweni ngezindawo eLondon.
  3. EParis - eFrance: Indlela engaphansi komhlaba eParis yiyona 2 yakudala emhlabeni. metro. Yonke ingxenye yeParis ingafinyelelwa nge-metro. Ngomugqa we-214 km kanye nesiteshi se-380, lapho wehla esiteshini esisodwa, udinga kuphela ukuhamba amamitha we-500, othathwa njengongaphansi komhlaba ongaphansi komhlaba. Abantu abayizigidi ezingama-4 ngosuku bathuthwa yile ndlela engaphansi komhlaba.
  4. EMoscow: Uhlelo olungaphansi komhlaba lwaseMoscow, olwaziwa njengohlelo lokuhamba komhlaba olungaphansi kakhulu emhlabeni, luthwala abantu abangaphezu kwezigidi ezingama-8.2 ngosuku olujwayelekile lokusebenza. IMetro yaseMoscow ine-290 station ine-172 km line. Yize iningi lale ndlela engaphansi komhlaba ihamba ngaphansi komhlabathi, ingxenye encane yayo idlula kuleli bhuloho futhi ihehe abantu nsuku zonke ngokubuka kweMoscow noMfula i-Yauza.
  5. IMontreal - ECanada: IMontreal Metro yakhiwa okokuqala e-1966. Isiteshi sika-Metro esise60 km eside esinesiteshi se-68 sithathwa njengesihamba phambili emhlabeni ngesakhiwo saso sanamuhla, yize kungeyona indawo kaMasipala ende kunazo zonke emhlabeni. I-835.000 ithwala abantu ngosuku.
  6. IMadrid - Spain: Imetro yaseMadrid yi-2.ci eYurophu kanye ne-6.ci emhlabeni. Imetro kaMadrid yavulwa okokuqala kwi-1919 ngomugqa we-3,3 km nesiteshi se-8 yabe isenyukela esiteshini se231. Indlela engaphansi kweMadrid ingenye yemigwaqo ematasa kakhulu emhlabeni, lapho i-1.8 isebenzisa isigidi sabantu ngosuku.
  7. ITokyo: Uhlelo lokuhamba umphakathi lwaseTokyo luhamba phambili. Kuleli lizwe, abantu abayizigidi ezingama-10.6 ngosuku basebenzisa izithuthi zomphakathi, kanti abantu abayizigidi ezingama-7.7 ngosuku basebenzisa metro. Kukhona ingqikithi yeziteshi zangaphansi ze287 eTokyo. Zombili izimemezelo zesiNgisi nezaseJapan ziyatholakala esiteshini ngasinye.
  8. Seoul - ENingizimu Korea: Indlela engaphansi kweSeoul ingenye yezindawo ezinabantu abaningi kakhulu emhlabeni. Cishe abantu abayizigidi ze-8 basebenzisa lo metro nsuku zonke. I-287 ngesinye seziteshi ezinde kakhulu zikaMetro emhlabeni ngomugqa waso we-km. Yize iningi lesitimela lihamba ngaphansi komhlaba, u-% 30 udlula umhlabathi.
  9. EBeijing - China: Indlela engaphansi kweBeijing yakhiwa e1969. Ngalesi sitimela sangaphansi, abantu baseChina bangavakashela kalula amadolobha ngaphakathi nangaphandle kweBeijing. I-2008 Ngaphambi kweMidlalo Yama-Olimpiki eBeijing, i-7.69 billion USD isitshaliwe kule ongaphansi komhlaba futhi umzila ongaphansi komhlaba usetshenzisiwe endaweni eyi-480 km. Le ndlela engaphansi komhlaba, esetshenziswa ngabantu abayizigidi ezingama-3.4 ngosuku, ithathwa njengeyona ndawo ehamba phambili yezitimela eChina.
  10. IHong Kong: Yize uhlelo lwangaphansi komhlaba eHong Kong lusekude kakhulu (i-90 km) uma liqhathaniswa namanye amadolobha, cishe abantu abayizigidi ezingama-3.8 basebenzisa lo metro ngosuku. Kulesi sihloko, i-9 yiyona enabantu abaningi emhlabeni ongaphansi komhlaba. Leli zwe. Le ndlela engaphansi komhlaba yakhiwe ngabaseBrithani e1979.

Isimo yamanje e-Turkey

Inani lezimoto zakwa-1908 ezingaphansi komhlaba nezimoto zakwa-LRT zathengiswa ezweni lethu, kwathi lapho kuphela ukuphela kwe-2013, abagibeli be-2.5 abayizigidi eziyisithupha bahlelelwa ukuthuthwa nsuku zonke. Kuze kube yi-2023, cishe izimoto ze-7000 metro ne-LRT. Ezweni lakithi, elizokhulisa inethiwekhi yesitimela ngaphansi kwe-2023 kuze kube yi-2; Izitimela eziyizinkulungwane eziyikhulu zamakhilomitha angu-26 ezizofika ku-10 000 km ezweni lonke zizobe zakhiwa imigqa yesitimela esihamba phambili. E-2023, inani labagibeli nsuku zonke ezinhlelweni zokuhamba zezitimela zasemadolobheni ezweni lethu lizokhuphukela ezigidini ze-4.1 bese kuthi ukuthuthwa kwezimpahla kube ngamathani ayizigidi ezingama-200 / ngonyaka. Izinga lokuhamba kwabagibeli lisuka ku-2004 liye ku-3 e-2023 lizonyuswa lisuka ku-10 liye ku-5.5 kanye nokuthuthwa kwemithwalo kusuka ku-15 kuya ku-XNUMX%.

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